SBS Academic tutorials — Academic writing series from My Learning Essentials

BIOL1000 — R20–0744

Introduction (Proposed Podcast script)

“Hi there — My name’s John and I work as part of the Library’s Teaching, Learning and students division. Among other things I work extensively on the Library’s My Learning Essentials skills development programme. We support students with the development of many important skills such as the design and delivery of presentations, finding relevant information for use within your assignments, effective group working and academic writing. As you have been tasked with the writing of an academic essay as part of your tutorials course unit, we have put together this package of resources which we hope you will find useful as you begin working on this task! You should be able to use these skills alongside those which are introduced in your writing and referencing skills unit to get started with the process of writing your essay.

Now the aim of most academic essays is actually quite straightforward. You will be usually presented with a question or statement which will provide you with an opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of a particular topic you have recently studied, or have an interest in.

These questions or statements will have been carefully selected by your tutor. They will usually invite you to take a particular position, towards an area of controversy or interest, in your area of study. The aim of your essay should be to persuade your reader of your own position or perspective towards this. You will be expected to provide a reasoned and logical argument, which is backed up through the evidence you have collected during your study of the topic.

Your essay will need to have a clear and coherent structure in order to achieve this aim successfully. With this in mind it is important that your essay has a clear beginning (or introduction), middle (often referred to as the Main Body) and Ending (your conclusion). Each of these sections should perform specific functions in order to allow your essay to demonstrate your full understanding of a topic.

Your introduction should provide your reader with a clear indication as to the position you intend to take within your essay, and an overview of how you plan to address the question which has been set.

The Main body is where you will introduce and analyse the evidence you have found during your research. Your analysis should demonstrate your understanding of the topic, and support and strengthen the overall position you are taking in response to the question you have been set. By introducing evidence in a logical and coherent manner you can incrementally convince your reader of the merits of your position. Think about the way in which a barrister might introduce pieces of evidence within a courtroom to create a compelling case to the jury! That’s the effect we are after ultimately

Your conclusion should ideally provide a thoughtful overview of what you have covered, and some interesting reflections on the implications of what you have discussed”.

The content we have provided for you within Blackboard will provide you with some general guidance on academic writing, together with detailed sections which explore introductions, the main body and the conclusion in more detail.

You will also find some links to further reading which contain more detail, and can be explored as you progress through your degree programme and develop more confidence in your writing. Thanks for listening.

Introduction, Main Body and Conclusion.

Every assignment you work on is likely to require a degree of flexibility, and a slightly different approach. So absolute clear-cut rules are difficult to provide! The good news however, is there are a number of useful techniques you can look to apply within the writing of the individual sections.

You should now work through the following sections on introductions, the main body and conclusions — these are based around a general essay focused on climate change. Think about ways in which you might apply these to your own essay title as you work through the content.

Writing the introduction

“A beginning is a very delicate time…” (Frank Herbert, 1965)

The introduction to an essay or assignment is a crucial part of the writing process. In simple terms you need to provide the reader with a very clear plan of what it is you intend to cover. This may sound straightforward, however, it can often be the most difficult section to get right!

There are a number of elements which a good introduction should include which we will explore in this post.

The main thing to remember is that the introduction is vital for making a favourable impression on your reader, who is also likely to be responsible for assigning your mark. For this reason it is very important to get it right.

Many writers will often refine the introduction as the final stage of the essay writing process. This is because the main purpose of the introduction is to provide a clear outline of what the essay will cover (themes, controversies, arguments etc). For this reason it is often better to finalise it once the rest of the essay is complete (Greasley, 2016). You can by all means produce a rough outline before you begin writing — this will be essential for ensuring you are clear about how you intend to answer the question and the topics you intend to cover! You should however, re-visit and refine your introduction regularly as part of the essay writing process.

The Library has produced a series of guides which focus on strategies you can employ to improve your writing. These offer clear guidance and examples of different elements you can look to include. These will ensure that each section performs a useful function within the larger piece of writing.

What should the introduction include?

Your introduction should provide the reader with a very clear idea of what to expect within the piece of writing. It should also provide a very clear indication of how you intend to answer the question or problem which has been set. This will usually involve you committing to a concrete position on the topic. You should also introduce some of the examples you intend to use to support your position. Finally, you should attempt to communicate your enthusiasm for the subject you will be writing about! All of these things will help to get your reader on side and enjoy reading the rest of your essay.

The order in which you incorporate the elements below may change depending on your writing style, but writing sentences which accomplish the following will ensure that you write an effective and engaging introduction:

  • Establish the significance of the topic you will be writing about
    You should make reference to the wider context(s) surrounding the issue or controversy you will be writing about. This can also be an excellent place to demonstrate your enthusiasm for your topic and include relevant background information.
  • Outline the problem / debate you will be discussing
    Use these sentences to narrow the focus of your topic from the wider issues mentioned above. This section should relate as closely as possible to the essay question or title.
  • Define the scope of your essay
    Give some indication of which examples / topics you will be using and why.
  • State your position or argument
    Sometimes known as the main argument, or the “thesis statement” this is a key part of your introduction and should relate directly to your essay title. You need to provide your reader with a very clear sense of what your purpose is. What will you be arguing for or against? What position will you be taking and / or supporting? Why is this significant?
  • Outline your structure and / or supporting evidence
    This is where you can begin to more specific and establish links with the Main Body of your writing. You could introduce the case studies or examples you plan to use, and give a brief indication as to how you intend to use these to support your main argument.

A non-prescriptive example

Imagine you have been set the following essay title:

“How can events of the coronavirus pandemic of 2019/20 be used to influence responses around climate change in the future?”

Here is a possible introduction you could use to answer this question (assuming a word limit of 2500–3000 words for the full essay). This is not intended as a perfect example but does demonstrate many examples of the elements discussed above. Read the piece as a whole initially. We will then discuss individual elements of the post to try and determine what this piece of writing is trying to achieve:

During the winter and spring months of 2019/20 a novel coronavirus (COVID 19) brought many of the world’s economies to a virtual stand-still (International Monetary Fund, 2020). As hubs of commerce, industrial production and international transport shut down worldwide — in a bid to contain the spread of the virus — interesting patterns relevant to the future of debates within climate change began to emerge. Expert voices — and their opinions — suddenly came back into fashion, while important issues for climate change such as long-term changes in human behaviour and disaster preparedness came equally to the fore (Gambhir, 2020). These all hold significant potential for creating stronger affirmative action on climate change.

Another significant area of controversy in climate change debate relates to the primacy of individual or collective action as the most effective driver of meaningful action (Smith & Meyer, 2018). Coronavirus has proved no exception in this regard. Lock-down measures introduced by governments worldwide led to a 17% reduction in daily emissions of carbon dioxide by early April 2020 in comparison with those of 2019 (Le Quere et al., 2020). Many saw this as providing evidence for the prioritisation of individual action going forward. Once people were prevented from engaging in normal daily carbon emission related activities — such as driving to work or school — positive climate change related effects were observed. Put simply, when people engage in less activity, they emit less (Grunwald, 2020).

This was soon shown to be an overly simplistic analysis. While carbon emissions decreased significantly during the height of the pandemic, concentrations of CO2 levels in the earth’s atmosphere reached the highest ever recorded in May 2020 (Borunda, 2020). Carbon dioxide lingers too long in the Earth’s atmosphere for a temporary shutdown to make a meaningful long-term difference to overall patterns of global warming and associated risks of climate change. (Liu et al., 2020). However, the lessons provided on the positive effects of reduced emissions through air and surface transport, and power usage during the early part of 2020 cannot be ignored. A longer more economically viable reduction in carbon emissions could make a substantial difference to our planets future.

This essay will argue that events surrounding the coronavirus pandemic now provide a unique opportunity to combine long-term individual and collective action on climate change. As a result of pandemic enforced changes to their daily lives, many people reported an increased desire to participate in remote working, and to use environmentally friendly forms of transportation. (Statista, 2020). This shift in consciousness provides a huge opportunity to take something positive from a truly catastrophic event which has already claimed over 925,000 human lives (Statista, 2020)

Collective action by governments, policy-makers and corporations now has the opportunity and responsibility to support this cultural shift by making emission reducing life-styles more economically viable, practical, and safe. Through analysis of building renovation and domestic energy efficiency schemes across the European union, it will be demonstrated how “home-working” has significant potential to not only reduce carbon emissions related to commuting, but also in the overall production of a countries’ GDP. Analysis of successful national and city wide “cycle to work” schemes in the Netherlands and Dublin will also demonstrate effective ways in which collective action can influence individual behaviour with regards to transportation. Environmentally friendly methods of transportation such as cycling not only assists with social distancing measures related to COVID-19 but can also significantly reduce emissions from surface-based transport.

The essay will conclude with an acknowledgement that such initiatives alone will not be enough to halt the march of climate change, but demonstrate how they might point the way to larger congruence's between individual and collective action on climate change and lay the ground for further initiatives. This has the potential to create long-lasting changes on individual carbon footprints. These can be viable in a way that a short pandemic enforced shutdown never could be, but which instead pointed the way towards a more sustainable future.

Breakdown of the example

We will now explore the example in further detail with reference to the key elements we introduce earlier in the section.

Part one

During the winter and spring months of 2019/20 a novel coronavirus (COVID 19) brought many of the world’s economies to a virtual stand-still (International Monetary Fund, 2020). As hubs of commerce, industrial production and international transport shut down worldwide — in a bid to contain the spread of the virus — interesting patterns relevant to the future of debates within climate change began to emerge. Expert voices — and their opinions — suddenly came back into fashion, while important issues for climate change such as long-term changes in human behaviour and disaster preparedness came equally to the fore (Gambhir, 2020). These all hold significant potential for creating stronger affirmative action on climate change.

Part one explained:

This is an example of Establishing the significance of the topic you will be writing about. We have made a clear link between the relationship between coronavirus and climate change, and demonstrate an awareness that there are multiple factors involved in this. The use of a relevant reference to the subject — the author is a senior research fellow at Imperial College London —demonstrates an early indication that we have read around the subject and will engage enthusiastically with the question that has been set.

Part two

Another significant area of controversy in climate change debate relates to the primacy of individual or collective action as the most effective driver of meaningful action (Smith & Meyer, 2018). Coronavirus has proved no exception in this regard. Lock-down measures introduced by governments worldwide led to a 17% reduction in daily emissions of carbon dioxide by early April 2020 in comparison with those of 2019 (Le Quere et al., 2020). Many saw this as providing evidence for the prioritisation of individual action going forward. Once people were prevented from engaging in normal daily carbon emission related activities — such as driving to work or school — positive climate change related effects were observed. Put simply, when people engage in less activity, they emit less (Grunwald, 2020).

This was soon shown to be an overly simplistic analysis. While carbon emissions decreased significantly during the height of the pandemic, concentrations of CO2 levels in the earth’s atmosphere reached the highest ever recorded in May 2020 (Borunda, 2020). Carbon dioxide lingers too long in the Earth’s atmosphere for a temporary shutdown to make a meaningful long-term difference to overall patterns of global warming and associated risks of climate change. (Liu et al., 2020). However, the lessons provided on the positive effects of reduced emissions through air and surface transport, and power usage during the early part of 2020 cannot be ignored. A longer more economically viable reduction in carbon emissions could make a substantial difference to our planets future.

Part two explained:

Here we begin to Outline the debate we will be discussing and drill down to the key contention that will be discussed within the essay. Note also how the language used very closely reflects that of the title which has been set. This is extremely important as it demonstrates to the reader that the writing will remain closely focused on the question that has been set throughout. We have used a mixture of credible popular and academic information resources to further demonstrate that our arguments will be backed up with references to appropriate literature.

Part 3

This essay will argue that events surrounding the coronavirus pandemic now provide a unique opportunity to combine long-term individual and collective action on climate change. As a result of pandemic enforced changes to their daily lives, many people reported an increased desire to participate in remote working, and to use environmentally friendly forms of transportation. (Statista, 2020). This shift in consciousness provides a huge opportunity to take something positive from a truly catastrophic event which has already claimed over 925,000 human lives (Statista, 2020)

Collective action by governments, policy-makers and corporations now has the opportunity and responsibility to support this cultural shift by making emission reducing life-styles more economically viable, practical, and safe. Through analysis of building renovation and domestic energy efficiency schemes across the European union, it will be demonstrated how “home-working” has significant potential to not only reduce carbon emissions related to commuting, but also in the overall production of a countries’ GDP. Analysis of successful national and city wide “cycle to work” schemes in the Netherlands and Dublin will also demonstrate effective ways in which collective action can influence individual behaviour with regards to transportation. Environmentally friendly methods of transportation such as cycling not only assists with social distancing measures related to COVID-19 but can also significantly reduce emissions from surface-based transport.

Part 3 explained:

This section both Defines the scope of our essay and begins to State our position and argument. It is clear that the focus will primarily be on two specific areas (remote working and transport) where we feel collective action could support demand sustained changes in individual behavioural change. It is clear that these changes came around primarily as a result of the pandemic but have the potential to positively impact climate change. This is very important in a short piece of writing as attempting to cover all aspects of a complicated issue may lead to an essay short on analysis. Different examples can (and should) be referred to at appropriate junctures to reinforce key points, but it is usually best to pick two or three key themes and explore these in as much detail as the word count permits. We will discuss this in greater detail the next section relating to the Main Body of essay writing.

We also highlight ways in which supporting evidence will be used to convince the reader of the position which will be taken. It is important to correctly attribute any references made within the introduction, but detailed analysis of these should be left for the Main body of your essay. You can though (as here) highlight some of the examples you intend to discuss. This section of the introduction should link as closely as possible to the ideas you will begin discussing in the first paragraphs of the Main body of your essay.

Part 4:

The essay will conclude with an acknowledgement that such initiatives alone will not be enough to halt the march of climate change, but demonstrate how they might point the way to larger congruence’s between individual and collective action on climate change and lay the ground for further initiatives. This has the potential to create long-lasting changes on individual carbon footprints. These can be viable in a way that a short pandemic enforced shutdown never could be, but which instead pointed the way towards a more sustainable future.

Part 4 explained:

This section may not always be necessary, but it can leave a positive impression on the reader to provide an indication as to the ultimate direction of travel of the writing. In this case early hints are provided to the reader as to the conclusions and insights this essay will provide.

Writing the Main Body

The purpose of the main body

The main body is where you will spend the majority of writing time. It will usually take up around 80% of your word count. In the main body you will:

  • Expand on the topics or areas you mentioned in the introduction
  • Build your argument by writing about and analysing the evidence you found when researching.
  • Structure your argument into paragraphs that guide your reader through the argument you are making.

Paragraphs

The main body of your essay will be made up of different paragraphs. Having a well-structured paragraph will help you present your ideas in a clear, concise and convincing way.

You can think of each paragraph as a mini-essay with an introduction, discussion and conclusion. Each paragraph should contain four types of sentences that each tell the reader something different:

  1. Topic Sentence: This tells the reader what the paragraph is about.

2. Evidence Sentences: This tells the reader what evidence you have found about this topic.

3. Analysis Sentences: This tells the reader what you think about the evidence and/or why it is important.

4. Concluding Sentence: This tells the reader what you have found out about the topic and/or how it helps you answer the assignment question.

Activity — Stop and check: Look back at your most recent piece of writing, do your paragraphs include all four sentence types?

Importantly, this structure can help make sure your paragraphs are short, relevant and critical.

Short, relevant, critical

Keep it short:
Long paragraphs can confuse your reader and make them lose track of your argument. Remember, One Paragraph = One Idea. The topic sentence can help to keep your paragraph short by ensuring you focus only on one idea at a time.

Keep it relevant:
Your job as a writer is to convince your reader of your ideas and/or answer the assignment question you have been given. Each paragraph should develop your argument in some way. If you are struggling to connect the paragraph to your wider argument or assignment question in your concluding sentence, you may need to rethink if that paragraph is still relevant.

Keep it critical:
You need to make sure every paragraph in your essay is critical and that it helps build your argument. If you only have evidence sentences your work will be too descriptive. Make sure you have an equal balance of evidence sentences and analysis sentences to keep your writing critical.

Writing analysis sentences

Writing analysis sentences can be difficult; they require critical thinking and evaluation skills. This is a skill that you will be expected to develop during your time at University. Luckily, there are a number of techniques you can use to help make analysing evidence a bit easier; asking questions, agreeing or disagreeing with evidence and giving examples or illustrations. We will look at each of these in this section.

Asking Questions
There are a number of different questions you can ask to help when analysing evidence.

  • How? — How was this found out? How does this author know this? What methodology did they use?
  • When? — When was this evidence produced? Is it up-to-date or out-of-date? Is it current?
  • Why? — Why was this evidence produced? Was it produced to serve a specific purpose?
  • So what? — What does this mean to your essay questions? Why is this evidence important? What does this evidence suggest to you?
  • What — What type of source is this?
  • Who? — Who wrote this information? Do they have any bias or agenda?

Example Evidence Sentence:A good example of a successful Energy Efficiency Obligation Scheme can be seen in Italy.” (European Commission, 2017)”

Example Analysis Sentence (who/why): “This evidence comes from the European Commission, who are may biased due to their need to promote the schemes across the wider European Union .”

Agreeing or disagreeing with evidence
Agreeing or disagreeing with other researchers is a great way to show your own critical thinking and engagement with the evidence. It shows that you are not simply believing everything that you read or taking things at face-value. When you do this its important to explain why you agree or disagree with another persons idea.

Example Evidence Sentence: “McMahon (2017) believes that Manchester, not Birmingham, is the true ‘second city’ in the United Kingdom”

Example Analysis Sentence Agreement: “This belief certainly has credence when one considers the global brands, such as Google, Adidas, Guardian Media Group and Manchester United Football Club. The city clearly has a pull that other cities in the UK struggle to compete with.”

Example Analysis SentenceDisagreement: “Although McMahon is correct in some regards, as Birmingham has a bigger population it should still be viewed as the second most important city in the country.”

Giving examples and/or illustrations
Giving examples and illustrations is a useful way to interact with concepts and theories. It highlights your own understanding and perception of those ideas. This technique can also help make abstract ideas clear and allow you to connect them to your own argument.

Example Evidence Sentence: “Important cities across the world are regarded as cultural transmitters. Cultural transmitter cities are defined as having a large proportion of the population involved in cultural activities, being well-connected internationally and a place were different cultures and ethnicities mix (McAdams, 2007).”

Example Analysis Sentence: “Manchester does seem to fit this description. For example, Manchester Airport is the third biggest in the UK, and the biggest outside of London.”

Connecting Your Paragraphs

As well as keeping your paragraphs short, relevant and critical, you also need to make sure your writing flows. Ensuring each paragraph connects to the next smoothly. Using transition words and phrases will ensure you connect your paragraphs and clearly guide your reader through your argument. Here are three ways you can do this:

Reinforcing or adding to an idea
This can be used focusing on a different element of the same source or example or providing different types of evidence to support the same point.

Examples: ‘Furthermore’, ‘Additionally’, ‘Moreover’, ‘Therefore’, ‘Likewise’, ‘Similarly’.

Example in a sentence: “Manchester is similarly a major hub in the ‘indie’ music scene.”

Contrasting with an opposing idea
This can be used when discussing one idea in a paragraph, then moving to an opposing idea in the next.

Examples: ‘In contrast’, ‘However’, ‘On the other hand’, ‘Unlike’, ‘Conversely’, ‘Nevertheless’.

Example in a sentence: “On the other hand, cities such as London and Liverpool can claim they are at the heart of popular culture in the UK.”

Signposting to an earlier idea
This can be used when referring directly back to an idea presented in a previous section to build upon your argument.

Examples: As noted earlier, As previously argued, As outlined above, As previously discussed.

Example in a sentence: “As previously discussed, many of the most successful bands in the last two decades have came from Manchester.”

Writing the conclusion

The purpose of the conclusion

Your conclusion should signal to your reader that the end of the essay has been reached. It should provide a thoughtful end to your work and not merely summarise the points made throughout your essay. Your conclusion is an opportunity to have your final say on the topic where can look beyond the scope of your essay.

For example, by acknowledging the limitations of the available research, suggesting further research, or making future predictions about the topic.

Writing techniques for your conclusion

Here are several techniques you may wish to try to add style to your conclusion and achieve the right tone.

Mirror your introduction — bring your reader full circle by mirroring the themes and language you used in your introduction. For example, you could use revisit scenarios, concepts or images.

Change of tone — use a change of tone to signify an end to your essay. Whilst your introduction is assertive and your main body provides justification to the assertions made in the introduction; the conclusion is your opportunity to be reflective, suggestive and perhaps offer your final, more personal viewpoint.

Asking ‘So what?’ — To help you articulate your thoughts in your conclusion imagine someone is asking you ‘So what?’ or ‘Why should anybody care?’ and answer those questions.

What to include

Your conclusion should include several of the following elements:

  • The answer to the assignment question — mention the title or question and answer it fully. Rather than give a full summary of the main body of the text you should clearly summarise your main argument and state how your writing answers the original question you were asked.
  • A brief summary of your essay’s main points.
  • A proposed course of action or a solution to an issue.
  • Suggestions for further research
  • Acknowledgements of the limitations of your essay or research — when writing an essay you have a finite word count, so there may be areas you could have explored further, or perhaps there are limitations to the existing research on your topic.
  • A ‘closing thought’, for example a quote, prediction, warning or question.

What not to include

Your conclusion should avoid including any of the following elements:

  • Any new material or arguments: if you have a new thought or idea when writing your conclusion, go back and explore this fully in the main body of your essay.
  • Contradictions : do not include anything which contradicts your argument or final opinion.
  • Lengthy summaries: your conclusion should not be a long summary of the all points made in the main body of your essay. Whilst you should include a brief summary of your main points, your conclusion should not repeat what you have already covered.

An example conclusion?

Some further tips for academic writing

Structure and flow within your writing

You need to give close consideration to the overall flow, or direction of travel, within your writing. Your aim is to provide a straight and clear line of argument which runs throughout from the introduction to conclusion. Ideas and/ or evidence should be introduced in a logical manner, which connect strongly with your central themes and ideas. This will allow you to build your argument incrementally, and gradually convince your reader of the value of your position.

There are some general rules methods you can use to improve your writing fluency. These are discussed below. However, a key writing objective, and principle, should be to keep your focus firmly on the following simple consideration.

“Why am I writing about this?”

It can be very easy to lose your overall focus when you begin analysing and discussing complex articles, datasets or concepts. This may lead to comments about a lack of clarity, or focus, when you receive feedback on what you have written.

Keeping your focus on “why” you are discussing something can help to avoid this. It will also ensure that you consistently connect your writing back to your central ideas and themes. This will help to ensure that your writing maintains a consistent structure and flow.

Words, sentences and paragraphs
Thinking about how we use language when we are writing can be an effective way to improve. Your words, sentences and paragraphs should all form building blocks which help in the construction of your overall ideas and themes.

Words (less can be more!)
There can be a temptation in academic writing to over-elaborate when you are writing. We may feel that this helps our language to sound more scholarly, or authoritative. However, it can have the effect of making our language overly clunky and confusing. Simple, concise expression is a good thing to aim for.

Consider using the shortest form of a word possible — think “use” instead of “utilise”! Also, try to limit the number of times you use phrases which don’t actually add anything meaningful to what you are saying. Terms like “However”, or “as such”, are good examples of these. They can be useful occasionally to signal a transition, or change in direction, but should be used sparingly. This will help your writing to be more concise.

Technical terms (such as ophiophagus hannah rather than King Cobra if you were writing about snakes) are often preferred. They can often be the most concise way of saying something. Look for guidance on this within your course handbook, or try reading some relevant journal articles within your field. This should help to give you a good idea of what is expected.

Above all the language you use should be natural and consistent. Searching for “clever” words or expressions in a thesaurus may be tempting, but can actually inhibit the natural flow and expression of your writing.

Sentences
Your sentences should be short and clear. It is generally better to express one thought clearly and succinctly if possible. You should also try to make it obvious what is important by placing the subject of your sentence at the beginning. This will help add clarity to your writing.

Example — It was only following extensive criticism in the media that the government finally acknowledged that the algorithm was flawed and unfair to those from disadvantaged backgrounds.

In the sentence above it is very unclear who is the main subject or focus. This can be improved by splitting it up into two sentences. This makes the writing clearer and easier to understand. It also makes it clear that “the government” is the primary focus of our writing.

The Government finally acknowledged that the algorithm was flawed, and unfair to those from disadvantaged backgrounds. This came in response to extensive criticism from the media.

Paragraphs
You may often hear people refer to the advice that a paragraph should consist of one idea. This can be problematic in academic writing, as our ideas may be complex. This can lead to VERY long paragraphs. It can be more helpful to think of the paragraph as providing a distinct movement in your argument. It may require multiple paragraphs to construct the whole idea, but each paragraph should discuss a particular element. A common way to do this is to analyse a specific section of key reading within an individual paragraph.

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Email: uml.teachingandlearning@manchester.ac.uk

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