Referencing and sourcing literature

R20–0728 EDUC60771 EDUC60772

Library for Educators
5 min readFeb 4, 2022


  • Group: c100
  • Length: 60 mins
  • Format: online and asynchronous
  • Discipline: Education
  • Level: PGT


Watch this video message from Anna: (Embed video)

(Embed text) Through engaging with this content you will:

  • Understand the conventions for citation styles and bibliographies required for your course.
  • Learn how to use Endnote Online to manage your references.
  • Use correct academic practices in quoting, citing and paraphrasing.
  • Use information sources appropriately to support your own arguments.

(Embed text) Referencing is your way of acknowledging the sources that you have referred to in your work. There are a number of different referencing styles, in this course you will be expected to use APA 7th.

There are two parts to a reference: a citation within your writing, and an entry in your reference list with the full details of the source:


A citation should appear in your text whenever you refer to the ideas or work of another author. Exactly how this looks will depend on the referencing style that you use, but it often will be the author’s name and year of publication in brackets at the end of a sentence, for example:

The advent of an international perspective is a significant recent development for the field of higher education. (Liu, 2019)

Reference list:

A reference list is a complete listing of all of the books, journal articles, websites and other sources that you have referred to in a piece of work. As with a citation, exactly how each entry in a reference list is formatted will depend on the style you are using, but they tend to include the same information, for example:

Liu, W. (2019). Higher education leadership development: an international comparative approach. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 1–19.

Why is referencing important? (embed text — already created in referencing area 1.1)

We see referencing in scholarly writing such as journal articles and textbooks and we are asked to reference in our own academic work. Why do we reference? Why is it important to the person reading the work and why is it important to the person writing the work?

ACTIVITY: Spend a few minutes thinking and add your responses below. Take some time to read some of the responses of other students (4 mins).

Why is referencing important to the reader?


Why is referencing important to the writer?


Avoiding plagiarism

(EMBED text) One major reason to reference is to ensure that you avoid plagiarism. In the resource below we discuss plagiarism and other forms of academic malpractice, helping you to understand what they are and how you can avoid them.

(EMBED MLE online resource)

(EMBED text) ACTIVITY: Test your knowledge (5 mins)

Check your understanding and try our Academic malpractice quiz:

EMBED quiz: It’s the quiz at the bottom of this page

APA referencing and using Endnote Online

(EMBED text) APA style is a writing style and format for academic documents such as scholarly journal articles and books. It is commonly used for citing sources within the field of behavioural and social sciences.

The style is detailed in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

This latest version will be available for you to access via Library Search once our order has been processed:

Image of Library search catalogue showing Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

There have been several changes that of the previous editions and these changes are designed to make things easier and more straightforward. The video below outlines the most notable changes:

(EMBED video

This new APA 7th style is available to use via one of our reference management software packages:
· Endnote Online
· Endnote Desktop
· Mendeley

Watch the narrated PowerPoint presentation that for an introduction into referencing and reference support management tools using the example of Endnote Online. We recommend that you sign up for an Endnote Online account and follow along.




(EMBED text) Further support is available via our referencing support pages and our learning resource:

Library Referencing support pages for Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association

Our referencing support pages are currently being updated to reflect changes to the APA referencing style this will include current conventions and examples of APA 7th in relation to the most popular resource types.

Below is a quick overview of how to reference journal articles, books and edited book chapters in APA 7th:

Another excellent resource is the APA website and blog:

How to incorporate references into your writing

(EMBED text)Listen to Anna explain how and when to quote, paraphrase or summarise, and finding the balance between the work of others and your own voice.

(EMBED narrated PPT) (2.2. in Blackboard)


Short paper activity (15 minutes)

Now it’s your turn to consider the question ‘Should higher education be free?’

  • Using the evidence provided write a “short paper” (around two paragraphs) include a quote, and examples of paraphrasing and summarising.
  • Review what you have written and identify where your own voice comes through. Reflect on the following: Does your paper include analysis? Can you identify your own voice and opinion in your short paper? Do you connect your ideas together and link back to the question?
  • Revisit your short paper and add in your analysis of the references you have included, and link the references and analysis to the original question you have been set ‘Should higher education be free?

Share your experience with your course mates, did you find any particular aspect of this activity challenging? Comment on the discussion board.


Finding sources

(EMBED text) ACTIVITY: Share with your course mates: Where do you go to find information? (EMBED mentimeter

There are many places you can go to find information, here are a few.

Subject guides: embed ‘Finding information’ pre-written content 1 to 1.7

Library Search: embed ‘Finding information’ pre-written content 2 to 2.8

Google Scholar: embed ‘Finding information’ pre-written content 3.0

Using search operators (Boolean searching)

(EMBED text) This resource will introduce you to the use of search operators, also known as Boolean, in subject databases. You will gain a greater understanding of how each operator refines and manipulates your search; enabling you to retrieve more accurate and relevant results.

(EMBED MLE resource)

Introduction to the Ovid platform using PsycInfo

(EMBED text) Throughout your course we would recommend using the database PsycInfo. In this post we will show you how to search for literature in the PsycInfo database via the Ovid platform; including using key tools such mapping terms to subject headings.

(EMBED Medium post

Suggested online resources/further support:

(Generic embed) Contact the Library



Library for Educators

Sharing resources for educators, from The University of Manchester Library