Referencing and avoiding plagiarism for Senior Leader Apprenticeship programme


Library for Educators
6 min readFeb 6, 2023

Learning outcomes for sync and async:

  • Use correct academic practices in quoting, citing and paraphrasing
  • Use information sources appropriately to support your own arguments
  • Understand the conventions for citation styles and bibliographies required for your assignment
  • Evaluate reference management tools, identify one to use if appropriate and learn how to use it effectively

FOR e-learning this async content is to be embedded in the following Blackboard spaces:

  • Senior Leader Apprenticeship programme, in the Exec Ed department — Personal and Professional Practice, under ‘assessments and submissions’



Welcome! This resource is intended to work alongside our discussions in the live session on Friday 24th February to help you understand the importance of academic integrity, how to reference and how to avoid plagiarism. The materials and activities here will explore a number of different elements including:

  • Avoiding plagiarism
  • How to reference
  • Using reference management software to manage your sources

Here we will introduce you to some resources to develop your academic and professional practice and to assist you in upholding the academic integrity of your work, specifically focussing upon how you reference the work of others.

We will spend a little bit of time thinking about how referencing can also draw attention to the writer’s ideas and opinions as referencing clearly distinguishes others ideas from your own.

Avoiding plagiarism

(Embed REFERENCING: 7.0) Avoiding Plagiarism

(Embed REFERENCING: 7.1.) Academic plagiarism quiz


One of the most important ways to avoid plagiarism is to acknowledge the work of others and by making effective notes when you are reading your sources.

(Embed REFERENCING: 1.0) What is referencing?

Distinguishing between the work of others and your voice

(Embed REFERENCING: 1.2) Successfully integrate the work of others into your writing

Referencing subject guide

The Referencing Guide at the University of Manchester is a really useful tool to help get familiar with referencing and also to help with specific queries and formatting issues when you start referencing in your assignments. There is a section specific to formatting your references in the APA style.

The Referencing Guide has instructions on how to reference a wide range of sources including eBooks, journal articles, YouTube videos and many more. If you find a source you wish to cite but are unsure how to reference it, always check the Guide for help.

It is important to remember that you don’t necessarily need to know all about referencing from memory. It is perfectly acceptable to use tools and resources, such as this Guide, to help and remind you about referencing when you need it. Take some time to become familiar with the Guide and bookmark it in your browser so you can access it quickly when you need to.

Using reference management software

We recommend you use reference management software to collect, organise and format your references. It can take a little time to learn how to use reference management software but in the long term it will save you time and make formatting your references easier.

(Embed REFERENCING 4.0) Using EndNote reference management software


These resources have introduced some further elements and explanations of academic integrity. Take some time now to reflect on what further practices you will include in your own practice going forward to help uphold your own academic integrity.

Come back to these resources whenever you feel you need a recap on academic integrity, referencing or reference management software.

(Embed regular feedback & support)

Further resources

Start to Finish referencing

SYNC WORKSHOP — live, virtual



Introduction (3 mins) Slides 1–3

In this session we will be discussing referencing and how to avoid plagiarism, specifically within the context of academic integrity. Together we will reflect on what further actions and skills we can develop within our academic and professional practice to address integrity so that you are prepared for your work ahead.

We will also look at how to use referencing to support your own arguments and the correct academic practices for quoting, citing and paraphrasing. We will finish off the session with a demonstration of reference management software; and how software can help you to organise and format your references.

Alongside this material there are some supporting materials in the Bb space. These are there to support you throughout the course and we would love you to use them as much as you need them. Return to them as and when you need them.

This workshop will not be one where I talk and you listen, it is valuable that you contribute to the discussions so that you can contextualise what you are learning. Facilitator should go through the ‘How to join in today’ slide (slide 3)

Why reference? (8 mins)

Slide 4: The facilitator should ask the students to consider the following two questions and add one example for each to the Jamboard (demo adding a sticky note) (5 minutes).

  • What is the purpose of referencing for the reader?
  • What is the purpose of referencing for the writer?

Slide 5: Facilitators should look what has been written down and discuss, with special attention paid to referencing as a way to:

  • Inform — your reader where the information has come from
  • Demonstrate — your reading/research on a topic
  • Separate — the ideas of your own from the ideas of others
  • Reinforce — your argument, references = evidence
  • Acknowledge — the work of others

Academic integrity

Following on from Activity one, we are going to focus in on referencing in terms of academic integrity. What does academic integrity mean to you and what are the reasons why it’s valuable?

Activity — Liberating questions (18 minutes) Slide 6

We are going to work through a series of questions using a method called Liberating questions.

In the first instance we are going to send you into a break out room in pairs (without us trainers!) and ask you to discuss the following questions with each other.

Add your responses anonymously to the Jamboard in the spaces marked Q1 Q2 and Q3. The posts are anonymous.

  1. What do you think we mean by academic integrity?
  2. Why is academic integrity important to you?
  3. When doing academic work what practical actions do you take to maintain academic integrity?

Return to the Main Room and discuss what is on the Jamboard. e.g. Feedback on students’ practical actions and encourage others to try those mentioned by others.

Explanation of academic integrity and let the students know that the MLE resource Avoiding Plagiarism with the group in the chat — it has been embedded in the Bb area too.

Quote, summarise, paraphrase (10 mins) Slides 7–10

The facilitator should explain that there are a number of different ways that effective academic writers incorporate the work of others into their writing: Quoting, summarising and paraphrasing (slide 7).


Facilitator to move onto slide 8 and without revealing the key they should ask students to discuss which example is a quote, which is an example of paraphrasing, and which is an example summarising:

  • ask students for their justification why they have selected quote/paraphrase/summarise
  • and ask them to consider why the author may have chosen that particular way of integrating a source

The facilitator should talk reveal the key at the end of activity and move onto slide 9 to give a full explanation/summary of each way of referencing in your writing:

Quote: a direct reproduction of text produced by someone else, use quotation marks to signify a direct quotation. Quote when only the original words will do and you want to make an impact, remember a direct quotation surrenders your own voice so use sparingly.

Paraphrase: re-writing another author’s words or ideas in your own words without altering the meaning. Your version would be about the same number of words as the original. To help you paraphrase, imagine trying to explain the content to someone who is unfamiliar with the topic.

Summarise: shorter than the original text, a summary is a broad overview of important information which is relevant to the point you are making. A summary is commonly used when establishing the background of your writing and can be especially useful when you are referring to multiple (often related) sources of information.

End activity by emphasising the strategy on slide 10 — it says, I say and so — use references to form the basis of your own arguments and make sure you distinguish between the ideas of others and your own arguments to ensure you avoid plagiarism. Highlight that this content has been embedded into the Bb space.

By using this strategy you will ensure that you are critically engaging with literature to be original. Facilitator should try to link this point back to the discussions in the liberating questions — The ‘AND SO’ is crucial to your writing success and demonstrates integrity by being original.

Outline referencing guide Slide 11 (2 mins)

DEMO: Endnote 20 as a way to organise and format your references (6 mins)

Q&A Slide 12 (10 mins)

Opportunity for students to ask any questions they have about referencing/academic integrity.

Reflect and Plan (2 mins)

Ask students to reflect on what we have discussed today and share one thing in the Zoom chat they will adapt into their own practice to uphold their own academic integrity.

Outline further support Slide 13

Contact and feedback Slide 14–15



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