Effectively incorporating references into your academic writing

R21–0785 MATS11220

To be embedded in Bb here


It is for:

MATS12220 FBT Y1 TUTORIAL 2020–21 Full Year

Course content

Year 1 Tutorial Year Manager Session Zoom links, Slides and Information

Semester 2 Week 3 23rd Feb Learning Essentials Referencing


Nice to see you!

Referencing is one of the key skills that you have to develop when you start to study at university. In this resource we want to assist you in understanding why referencing is integral to your academic work, so that you can approach referencing with confidence.

Additionally we will look specifically at how we incorporate references to what we have read in our own writing, be that essays or reports. We will also signpost you to further guidance on referencing that you can revisit when you need it.

(Embed REFERENCING: 1.0) What is referencing

Activity — Why do we reference?

Together, lets list the reasons why we reference to support you both as a reader and writer. You can submit up to three responses:

(embed menti)

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Read what others have shared and reflect upon the multiple reasons that we are expected to reference other peoples work.

Make a note of the main reasons that you reference.


To better develop an understanding of why we reference and what references look like work through the following resource:

(Embed Citing it right https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/learning-objects/mle/introducing-referencing/story_html5.html)

Listen to other students…

…share their tips on how best to approach referencing at university.

(Embed podcast and tips from here https://studentteam.medium.com/top-ten-tips-referencing-2c6f21feff36)

Referencing in your writing

In the previous section you have been thinking about why referencing is important in academic writing. In this next section we will look at how you can use referencing to develop your writing.

Identifying how and when to use a reference can be valuable in developing your writing. One good way to improve your writing with effective referencing is to look at published papers by authors in your field. Look at how they incorporate references in their writing and how you respond as a reader.

(Embed Referencing: 1.2.1) (Video) Integrating the work of others into your writing

When you are next writing an assignment you can use this handout ‘It says, I say and so’ to persuade your reader of your key messages.

(embed https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/learning-objects/mle/resources/handouts/it-says-i-say-and-so-template.docx)

Activity: analysing a text

It can be helpful to analyse how academic authors refer to the work of others to see how to improve our own writing.

Read the ‘Discussion’ section of this article and follow the steps below.

Wallace, E., Buil, I. and Catalán, S. (2020), “Facebook and luxury fashion brands: self-congruent posts and purchase intentions”, Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Vol. 24 №4, pp. 571–588.

https://doi.org/10.1108/JFMM-09-2019-0215 (log-in maybe required)

1. Read the text and identify one example of either a quote, paraphrase and summary. These were identified in the slides above. (add transcript link to video above for reference)

2. Identify where the author has integrated their own voice, can you find some analysis of the references/data the author has presented.

3. Locate where the author has used their analysis of references/data to answer their research question, or provide an argument for or against something.

When you are writing can you use similar approaches to incorporating evidence and ensuring that the reader can see the difference between which is your voice and that of others, represented by a reference?

In this resource you have shared your understanding of referencing and its purpose in academic writing and this should give you confidence in approaching your writing.

You also understand that you have choices in how you incorporate references into your writing and this is based on what evidence you want to draw attention to. Finally you have analysed a piece of writing to observe how others make it clear what is their own voice and opinion and what is another's.

Below you will find further support including guidance on referencing different sources. You can refer back to any of this content as you progress through the unit.

(Embed REFERENCING: 3.0) Referencing Subject Guide

(Embed REFERENCING: 7.0) Avoid Plagiarism

(Embed ACADEMIC WRITING: 1.4) Further Support

(Embed ACADEMIC WRITING: 1.5) Get 1:1 guidance from a Royal Literary Fellow

(Embed General Support & Evaluation)

Sync activity for live session — 23 Feb

Slides available here https://livemanchesterac-my.sharepoint.com/:p:/g/personal/sam_aston_manchester_ac_uk/EYnu2baQIPlCgRT4l7FSttQBfrKYNP1srUmzEqJucJKVLw

The session has 2 parts the first will be to do an activity that shares the It says, I say and so strategy support your writing with the work of others and then in the second half of the session there will be time for you to ask questions of myself about referencing and writing.

It says I say and So

It says, I say and so is a strategy that will enable you to see connections between what you are reading and what you are thinking. It can help you in differentiating between what you are reading that are the words and ideas of others and what you are thinking.

For the purposes of this activity we are using an excerpt from an article though you would typically read a full article. You may want to make a few notes as you go. (Share screen with article on. Page 10 and Zoom in to 200%)

Read this short segment from this article:

Brownbridge, K., Gill, S., Grogan, S., Kilgariff, S. and Whalley, A. (2018), “Fashion misfit: women’s dissatisfaction and its implications”, Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, Vol. 22 №3, pp. 438–452. https://doi.org/10.1108/JFMM-05-2017-0050

“The findings also add evidence to support the claim that the use of fit models in industry is outmoded and inappropriate and the cause of fit problems for anyone who does not conform to the body shape of the model (Ashdown and O’Connell, 2006; Bye et al., 2008; Brownbridge, 2012). Shim and Bickle (1993) who conducted a much larger qualitative study identified length of trousers, skirts and dresses as being the primary cause of fit dissatisfaction. The results from this study focus more on girth measurements. The rejected dress did not conform to any of the participants’ body shapes. This nonconformity was, however, consistent in that it was too tight on all the participants’ hips and either too loose or fitted across their bust. Speculatively, this dress was developed for a fit model with a very different body shape to that of the participants in this study. This observation may appear to be contradicted by the acceptance of the second dress from the same retailer (H&M) by three of the participants. Both dresses were pink, would presumably conform to the same size specification and potentially be fitted on the same fit model. The rejected dress, however, was a shift shape, styled to skim over the hips and made from a non-stretch woven fabric. The accepted dress was a button through shirt dress that flared slightly from the hips and was made from a stretch cotton sateen. This comparison indicates that good fit is more crucial for some garment styles than others. In this case, the shirt dress was still tight across the participants hips but the inclusion of elastane in the fabric and the flared skirt prevented the participants rejecting the dress. Finally, the size coding on the pink dress was also problematic. When the participants tried the dress on and it was tighter than they expected, their responses indicated that they were frustrated by what they considered to be misleading information. There was also evidence to support the theory that women identify with their clothes’ size (Grogan, 2016) and when this link is disrupted and the familiar size is replaced by a larger size it causes discomfort and body dissatisfaction. The frustration of being misinformed and the feelings of discomfort both contributed to the dress being rejected. Size coding is a complex issue and this finding indicates that garments that have been coded smaller than the prospective purchaser expects are more likely to be rejected. It is well documented that many retailers avoid this pitfall by implementing vanity sizing, in order to flatter women into purchasing (Treleavan, 2007). Paradoxically, although vanity sizing may please women and influence them to purchase, it also increases sizing inconsistency amongst retailers, which increases frustration for consumers, prevents purchase and increases the risk of returns (Labat, 2007; Kennedy, 2008). Findings from this study show that women can feel disappointed and 447 Fashion misfit deflated when they find that the size number on the label of the garment they are trying does not match the size they identify with. These sizing numbers can actually have a very tenuous relationship to how a garment fits and negative feelings invoked by the number on the label appears to contribute to the rejection of the garment. This finding supports Kinley (2003) who suggested that retailers de-emphasise the number on the size label in order to focus on achieving comfort through appropriate fit.”

Now the students should answer the following questions. They can use a word document or a notepad.

It says — What does the article excerpt say? Write a summary in 2/3 sentences.

I say — What do you have to say about what you have read? Consider what you already know to do this?

And so — What does that mean — what can you infer from that?

Can you share your And so statements in the chat please?

Now can you write a short paragraph using what you noted down as an answer for each of the 3 previous questions and not forgetting to reference the paper. (6 minutes)

Reflect upon how this model can help you reference within your writing in the future.

Q/A using chat — keep chat if there are lots of questions.

Students can private message if they do not want to put in the chat.

Draw attention to RLF Lizzie for 1:1 writing support and the Referencing Guide that shows how to reference a range of different sources.

Finally you can find support and help in the Blackboard space and you can return to this as often as you need. There are links to getting 1:1 support and specialist referencing support. Get in touch with us!



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