Critical thinking, reading and writing

R19–0652 PLAN60191

Welcome Video

[embed welcome video]

Critical reading and using sources critically

  1. Introduction
  2. Section 1: Using Eikon and Finding Reports
  3. Section 2: Reading critically
  4. Section 3: Writing critically
  5. Summary
Photo by Bram Naus on Unsplash


For your assessment, you have been asked to write an individual critical report. The assignment brief explains that you have been appointed to advise a UK real estate fund, whose investment assets are mixed. The board is undertaking strategic review of the portfolio and allocating 20% more into direct real estate asset and requires you to provide:

  1. A critical performance analysis and review of the fund (c. 1500 words);
  2. The reasonable recommendations for the investment split of the 20% asset in direct real estate asset (c. 1500 words).
  • Section 1 will be useful when searching for reports in Eikon
  • Section 2 will be useful when reading and analysing the reports and other materials you have found
  • Section 3 will be useful when you are at the writing stage.

Activity: Being Critical

Work through the Being Critical: Thinking, Reading and Writing Critically resource to find out more about what being critical means, discover some useful strategies and practice identifying critical and descriptive writing.

Image of the ‘Being critical: thinking, reading and writing critically’ online resource
Being Critical: Thinking, Reading and Writing Critically
Photo by Carlos Muza on Unsplash

[New Folder - Using Eikon and Finding Reports]

(Embed text)

Section 1: Using Eikon and Finding Reports

The Eikon database features market quotes, earnings estimates, financial fundamentals, press releases, transaction data, corporate filings, ownership profiles and research from Refinitiv (formerly Thomson Reuters).

[New folder - for Reading Critically]

(Embed text)

Section 2: Reading Critically

Once you have obtained company reports, financial reports and other company information, reading critically is important in forming your own ideas and opinions about a fund’s performance.

Critically analyse a source

The main idea within a report will be the author’s interpretation of the data. It’s the interpretation itself, not the facts presented alongside it as supporting evidence, that you need to focus on. Since it’s an interpretation, you can decide whether you agree or disagree with it and crucially, you can get critical about it! Also when we talk about the author this could mean the company itself or an independent company analysing the data.

Three circles containing text. Opinion not fact. Supported by evidence. Argue or agree
Interpreting the report
  • Identify the evidence: The evidence supporting the opinion, or main idea, will include facts. Wherever you see references, citations, footnotes, web links, statistics or quotations, you know you the author is attempting to back up their opinion with some evidence.
  • Identify the analysis: The analysis is where the author examines the evidence they have presented. They may discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence. In the analysis the author will make connections to trends, larger ideas and the rest of the text. The author will use the evidence to make an argument and communicate their main idea.
  • Summarise for understanding: Do you ever feel like you’ve spent lots of time reading a journal article or chapter but you still don’t understand what you’ve just read? By actively engaging with a text and drawing out the author’s main idea, you should be able to succinctly summarise the whole piece in your own words. Imagine you are explaining what you have read to a friend; if you are able to communicate the author’s main idea(s) in your own words, it demonstrates that you understood the text.
  1. What is the main argument or idea?
  2. What evidence is used to support it?
  3. Where is the analysis?
  4. What’s your critical opinion?

Question 1: What is the report’s main focus? What is it trying to convey?

Activity: Identify the report’s main idea or argument.

Read through the report and identify what you think the main idea of the report is. Does it make the case that the fund is performing strongly or not strongly?

Padlet instructions

  • To add your responses to the Padlet simply double click the + sign underneath Column 2 and start typing.
    (embed Padlet)

Question 2: What evidence is used to support the conclusions in the report?

Wherever you see data, references, citations, footnotes, web links or statistics, you know the author is attempting to back up their opinion with some evidence. Analysing the type, variety and strength of the evidence used is a really useful method to critique a report.

Activity: Identify the evidence

Work through the report and identify all the evidence the author has used (you may wish to highlight or underline this as you go).

Question 3. Where is the analysis in the report?

This is where you get to critically analyse what you’ve found. Where is the analysis in the report and the evidence that is being used to support it: does the analysis and the evidence make sense — is there anything missing? As a critical reader you’ll want to investigate the evidence further in order to decide if a fund is performing well or not and/or if you should recommend a particular property market as a possible investment opportunity.

Activity: Identify the analysis

Work through the report and identify all the evidence the author has used (you may wish to highlight this in a different colour to the evidence you identified).

Question 4. What’s your critical opinion of the report?

Finally, what do you think about the source as a whole. To help with this you might consider the following questions:

  • Do you think the fund is performing well or not so well?
  • What parts of the fund are performing above expectations? What parts of the fund are performing below expectations?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the fund?

Activity: What’s your critical opinion of the report?

Share your thoughts about this report in the Padlet. Do you think it is performing well or not well — and explain your answer (in relation to the evidence and analysis you have identified in the previous tasks).

Photo by Markus Spiske on Unsplash


After going through the critical strategy you can now make an informed decision about a company you have been given for your assessment.

  • For Part 1 of this assignment, you, can make an informed judgement on the fund’s performance.
  • In Part 2 of this assignment, you can decide whether you would recommend or reject an investment opportunity.

Activity: Create a new idea or question

As well coming to a critical judgement on a report, it is also important to think of some areas or questions for further research to help guide your own further reading.

  • Which parts of the analysis and the evidence most engaged you, and why?
  • Where are most of your notes concentrated, and why?
  • Of the parts that you didn’t understand, which bits do you want to find out more about?

Critically comparing sources

Earlier we looked at critical reading strategies to analyse an individual report, however, when analysing a fund’s performance you may need to compare it with other funds and reports to get a full picture of how well it is performing. For example, you may need to:

  • Compare the fund’s performance in the current year with the appropriate benchmark(s);
  • Compare the fund’s performance in the current year with its performance in previous years.
  • Has your opinion changed?
  • Why has you opinion changed?
  • Why has it not changed?
  • Do the two sources conflict or confirm each other?

[New folder — “Section 3: Writing Critically”]

(Embed text )

Section 3: Writing critically

In this section we will introduce you to a number of strategies that will help you write critically. Writing critically is important to show you know the advantages and disadvantages of the fund’s performance, and you can explain why it is performing well or not.

  • What the evidence means or suggests;
  • Why the evidence is important;
  • What the limitations and advantages of that type of evidence are.
Photo by Trent Erwin on Unsplash

Strategy 1: It Says, I Say, And So

This strategy is a really useful technique to engage with evidence and build a good balance between descriptive and critical writing in your own work. It can be applied whenever you integrate any piece of evidence into your own writing and asks you to do three things:

  1. It Says: Tell the reader what the evidence says. This may be through including a quote, statistics, data or figures and graphs. (You would include your in-text reference here)
  2. I Say: Tell the reader what you think the evidence means and/or why you think it is important.
  3. And So: Tell the reader how the evidence relates to your assignment question and/or purpose of your report.

Strategy 2: Agreeing or disagreeing

Agreeing or disagreeing with other researchers or statements in reports is a great way to show your own critical thinking and engagement with the evidence. It shows that you are not simply believing everything that you read or taking things at face-value.

  1. Incorporate the other person’s ideas or statements in your own work (by quoting, paraphrasing or summarising).
  2. State whether you agree, disagree or are neutral about their ideas or statements.
  3. Explain why you agree, disagree or are neutral.

“Several property performance measures are now regularly published in the United Kingdom and their contribution to improving knowledge in the property market should be welcomed. However, the existence of several indices has also caused confusion (Morrell, 1991).”

Take a few minutes to think about the quote above and decide if its something you agree, disagree or are neutral about. Once you have decided, use the steps above to practice writing out your thoughts on this statement.

Strategy 3: Giving examples and/or illustrations

Giving examples and illustrations is a useful way to interact with concepts and theories. It highlights your own understanding and perception of those ideas. This technique can also help make abstract ideas clear and allow you to connect them to your own argument. It is particularly useful to show your understanding of evidence in graphs, charts or other figures.

Graph showing private renting sector by household reference person
Graph of population survey
  • What is the key take-away point from the graph?
  • What other evidence or data could you use to further illustrate this point?


Critical thinking and the ability to analyse and interpret evidence from a range of sources will be a core activity during your time at university and beyond. It is how you build and show your own expertise and knowledge.

(Generic embed) Help and Support

(Generic embed) Evaluation/Feedback



Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store
Library for Educators

Sharing resources for educators, from The University of Manchester Library